lunes, 31 de mayo de 2010

La OECD y la innovación

Aquí el reporte en el sitio Web de la organización

Unos breves videos introductorios:

Extractos del reporte:

"Today, the world’s societies face severe economic and social challenges.
The 2008-09 economic downturn has led to reduced potential output growth,
rising unemployment and soaring public debt. To recover, countries need to
find new and sustainable sources of growth.

The search for new sources of growth comes however at a time when many
countries have stagnating or declining populations and face diminishing
returns from labour inputs and investment in physical capital. Future growth
must therefore increasingly come from innovation-induced productivity
growth. Innovation – the introduction of a new or significantly improved
product, process or method (Box 1) – holds the key to boosting productivity..."

"Defining and measuring innovation

There is growing recognition that innovation encompasses a wide range of activities in addition to R&D, such as organisational changes, training, testing, marketing and design. The latest (third) edition of the Oslo Manual defines innovation as the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations.
By definition, all innovation must contain a degree of novelty. The Oslo Manual distinguishes three types of novelty: an innovation can be new to the firm, new to the market or new to the world. The first concept covers the diffusion of an existing innovation to a firm – the innovation may have already been implemented by other firms, but it is new to the firm. Innovations are new to the market when the firm is the first to introduce the innovation on its market. An innovation is new to the world when the firm is the first to introduce the innovation for all markets and industries.

Innovation, thus defined, is clearly a much broader notion than R&D and is therefore influenced by a wide range of factors, some of which can be influenced by policy. Innovation can occur in any sector of the economy, including government services such as health or education. However, the current measurement framework applies to business innovation, even though innovation is also important for the public sector.
Consideration is being given to extending the methodology to public sector innovation and innovation for social goals.

Source: OECD and Eurostat (2005), Oslo Manual – Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, OECD, Paris."

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